Volume 23, Issue 11 (Feb 2016)                   JSSU 2016, 23(11): 1127-1139 | Back to browse issues page

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Ezoddini-Ardakani F, Safaee A, Safaee M, Sarikhani Khorrami K. A Review on Anatomical Variations of Mental Foramen (Number, Location, Shape, Symmetry, Direction and Size). JSSU 2016; 23 (11) :1127-1139
URL: http://jssu.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-3496-en.html
Abstract:   (8534 Views)

Mental foramen is located on the anterior aspect of the mandible that permits the terminal branch of the inferior alveolar nerve and blood vessels to exit. The anatomical variations of mental foramen are of considerable importance in local anesthesia, treatment of the fractures in the parasymphysis area, orthognatic surgeries, implant placement, etc. Regarding the importance of mental foramen in dentistry (from local anesthesia to invasive surgical procedures), this study intends to review the anatomical variations of mental foramen in this study. Absence of mental foramen is rare. On the other hand, prevalence of accessory mental foramen has been estimated lower than 15% in the most studies. The position of mental foramen is normally between first and second premolar teeth or under second premolar tooth in different ethnic groups and bilateral symmetry exists in regard with location in most cases. In most studies, the ratio of distance from mental foramen to symphysis to distance from symphysis to posterior border of ramus has been reported about 1/3.5 to 1/3. Mental foramen is oval or circular in shape and its most common direction is usually posterosuperior. Its size in different studies has been estimated about 2 to 5 millimeters and asymmetry in size is possible on both sides of mandible. Due to variations of mental foramen between various ethnic groups and even different individuals in the same ethnic group, using advanced imaging techniques such as CBCT is recommended in order to gain detailed knowledge of anatomy and morphology of mental foramen before applying invasive surgeries.

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Type of Study: Review article | Subject: Dental
Received: 2015/11/24 | Accepted: 2016/04/2 | Published: 2016/04/2

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