Volume 25, Issue 5 (Jul-Aug 2017)                   JSSU 2017, 25(5): 371-380 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Abstract:   (2368 Views)
Introduction: Office bleaching is one of the conservative and common treatments for teeth discoloration. Because of increasing shelf life, most of the whitening gels contain a pH near 2 and that is below the critical level, which caused the enamel demineralization. The aim of this research was investigating the clinical study of changing the bleaching agent's pH for improving the color of discolored teeth.
Methods: This clinical study was performed on 36 volunteer patients for bleaching. Patients were divided randomly into three groups. Patients received an office bleaching treatment sessions with 35% hydrogen peroxide at pH 8 and 10 and in the control group pH was 6.4. For changing the pH of bleaching agent, it was used 2.5 molar NaOH solutions. Color evaluation was performed in 2 maxillary central of patients with Easy Shade device (vita, Germany) before, immediately and one week after bleaching. Then,  ΔE for each tooth according to the criteria a, b and l was calculated. Data were studied by Bundle SPSS20 and ANOVA Two-way statistical tests and multiple comparison of Tukey. Meanwhile, the 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Changing of color before and after bleaching in each group was significantly different (p-value< 0/05), but pH between the groups has no statistically significant difference.
Conclusion: Due to the limitations of this study, it seems that there is a similar effect in improving the color of teeth in three groups, soit is better to prevent the destruction of tooth enamel it is used the pH above the critical level of demineralization
Full-Text [PDF 782 kb]   (740 Downloads)    
Type of Study: clinical trial | Subject: Dental
Received: 2016/12/27 | Accepted: 2017/10/16 | Published: 2017/10/16

References
1. Dahl J, Pallesen U. Tooth bleaching—a critical review of the biological aspects. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine. 2003;14(4):292-304.
2. Lee K, Kim H, Kim K, Kwon Y. Mineral loss from bovine enamel by a 30% hydrogen peroxide solution. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. 2006;33(3):229-33.
3. Ma X, Li R, Sa Y, Liang S, Sun L, Jiang T, et al. Separate contribution of enamel and dentine to overall tooth colour change in tooth bleaching. Journal of dentistry. 2011;39(11):739-45.
4. Joiner A. Review of the effects of peroxide on enamel and dentine properties. Journal of dentistry. 2007;35(12):889-96.
5. Sa Y, Chen D, Liu Y, Wen W, Xu M, Jiang T, et al. Effects of two in-office bleaching agents with different pH values on enamel surface structure and color: an in situ vs. in vitro study. Journal of dentistry. 2012;40:e26-e34.
6. Buchalla W, Attin T. External bleaching therapy with activation by heat, light or laser—a systematic review. Dental Materials. 2007; 23(5): 586-96.
7. Torres C, Crastechini E, Feitosa F, Pucci C, Borges A. Influence of pH on the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide whitening. Operative dentistry. 2014;39(6):E261-E8.
8. Joiner A. The bleaching of teeth: a review of the literature. Journal of dentistry 2006; 34(7): 412-9.
9. Sun L, Liang S, Sa Y, Wang Z, Ma X, Jiang T, et al. Surface alteration of human tooth enamel subjected to acidic and neutral 30% hydrogen peroxide. Journal of dentistry. 2011;39(10):686-92.
10. Magalhães JG, Marimoto ÂR, Torres CR, Pagani C, Teixeira SC, Barcellos DC. Microhardness change of enamel due to bleaching with in-office bleaching gels of different acidity. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 2012;70(2):122-6.
11. Dawes C. What is the critical pH and why does a tooth dissolve in acid? Journal-Canadian Dental Association 2003; 69(11): 722-5.
12. Margaritis V, Mamai-Homata E, Koletsi-Kounari H. Novel methods of balancing covariates for the assessment of dental erosion: a contribution to validation of a synthetic scoring system for erosive wear. Journal of dentistry. 2011; 39:361-7.
13. Joiner A. A review of the effects of peroxide on enamel and dentin properties. Journal of dentistry. 2007; 35 : 889-96.
14. Xu B, Li Q, Wang Y. Effects of pH values of hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on enamel surface properties. Operative dentistry. 2011;36(5):554-62.
15. Justino L, Tames D, Demarco F. In situ and in vitro effects of bleaching with carbamide peroxide on human enamel. OPERATIVE DENTISTRY-UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON-. 2004;29(2):219-25.
16. Efeoglu N, Wood DJ, Efeoglu C. Thirty-five percent carbamide peroxide application causes in vitro demineralization of enamel. dental materials. 2007;23(7):900-4.
17. Reis A, Tay L, Herrera D, Kossatz S, Loguercio A. Clinical effects of prolonged application time of an in-office bleaching gel. Operative Dentistry. 2011;36(6):590-6.
18. Tay LY, Kose C, Herrera DR, Reis A, Loguercio AD. Long-term efficacy of in-office and at-home bleaching: a 2-year double-blind randomized clinical trial. American journal of dentistry. 2012;25(4):199.
19. He L-B, Shao M-Y, Tan K, Xu X, Li J-Y. The effects of light on bleaching and tooth sensitivity during in-office vital bleaching: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of dentistry. 2012;40(8):644-53.
20. Bonafé E, Bacovis CL, Iensen S, Loguercio AD, Reis A, Kossatz S. Tooth sensitivity and efficacy of in-office bleaching in restored teeth. Journal of dentistry. 2013;41(4):363-9.
21. de Souza Costa CA, Riehl H, Kina JF, Sacono NT, Hebling J. Human pulp responses to in-office tooth bleaching. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology. 2010;109(4):e59-e64.
22. Sato C, Rodrigues F, Garcia D, Vidal C, Pashley DH, Tjäderhane L, et al. Tooth bleaching increases dentinal protease activity. Journal of dental research. 2012:0022034512470831.
23. Soares DG, Basso FG, Hebling J, de Souza Costa CA. Concentrations of and application protocols for hydrogen peroxide bleaching gels: effects on pulp cell viability and whitening efficacy. Journal of dentistry. 2014;42(2):185-98.
24. Pinto CF, Oliveira Rd, Cavalli V, Giannini M. Peroxide bleaching agent effects on enamel surface microhardness, roughness and morphology. Brazilian Oral Research. 2004;18(4):306-11.
25. Attin T, Vollmer D, Wiegand A, Attin R, Betke H. Subsurface microhardness of enamel and dentin after different external bleaching procedures. American journal of dentistry. 2005;18(1):8-12.
26. Sulieman M, Addy M, Macdonald E, Rees J. A safety study in vitro for the effects of an in-office bleaching system on the integrity of enamel and dentine. Journal of Dentistry. 2004;32(7):581-90.
27. Margaritis V, Mamai-Homata E, Koletsi-Kounari H. Novel methods of balancing covariates for the assessment of dental erosion: a contribution to validation of a synthetic scoring system for erosive wear. Journal of dentistry. 2011;39(5):361-7.
28. Rezende M, Ferri L, Kossatz S, Loguercio AD, Reis A. Combined Bleaching TechniqueUsing Low and High Hydrogen Peroxide In-Office Bleaching Gel: Operative dentistry. 2016; 41(3):000-000.